Patient specific facial implants
"Patient-matched implants were one of the first great applications of 3D printing in surgery"
Facial contouring implants
Congenital or acquired defects in the face or brain skull are difficult to hide and are therefore psychosocial for many people. Asymmetries develop or may be the result of an orthognatic intervention or trauma care. A person may be dissatisfied with the shape and definition of / in the face or a more masculine or feminine face. Transgender people usually know very precisely what is too much or too little prominent. A brain trauma often requires a decompressive craniotomy, and if the returned bone flap tears away, an irregular bone defect appears.
A CBCT or CT scan provides a digital dataset with which the defect can be quantified in specialized software. Left-right reflections across the centerline help to determine the surface shape and volume. Shaping implants are digitally designed, taking into account the surgical access and vital structures, drainage and fixation methods, osseointegration and transitions with neighboring bone contours. Most accesses are through the mouth. Sometimes access via the nose, lower eyelid or hairy scalp is necessary. The resulting scar is always hidden. Some implantations can take place under local anesthesia, but most take place in narcosis. The implantation can be done together with other facial correcting surgery. The time and duration of the intervention determine the need for overnight stay in the hospital. Checks typically occur after 1 day, 2 weeks and 3 months. Most swelling disappears after 2 weeks, but it takes 3 months before the result can be assessed.
Infection, bleeding and poor scar healing are possible. Patients also risk the risk of allergic reactions to anesthetic medication (low blood pressure, respiratory depression, embolism, nausea and vomiting) such as after any anesthesia. Pre-operative screening is necessary if the intervention is invasive or long-term.